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Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Firefox Sync කරමු

Firefox browser එක පාවිච්චි කරන අයට වැදගත් වෙන Add-on එකක් ගැන තමයි කියන්න යන්නෙ. හැබැයි කාටත් වැදගත් වෙන එකක් නෑ. මොකද මේ add-on එක වැදගත් වෙන්නෙ එක කම්පියුටරයකට වඩා වැඩි ගනනක් පාවිච්චි කරන අයට. ඒ කිව්වෙ ගෙදර PC එක, Office එකේ PC එක වගේම ලැප් එකක් එහෙම පාවිච්චි කරනව නම් මේක ඉතාමත් ප්‍රයෝජනවත්. මොකද එක තැනකදි නෙට් ගිහින් කරන වැඩ සහ වෙනස් කරන සෙටිංග්ස් තවත් තැනකදි ඒ විදියටම පාවිච්චි කරන්න පුළුවන්.
මේ ක්‍රමයට කියන්නෙ Synchronization කියල. කෙටියෙන් කිව්වොත් Sync කරනවා.
history, passwords, bookmarks වගේම open කරපු tabs පවා වෙනත් කම්පියුටරකදි පාවිච්චි කරන්න පුළුවන්.

උදාහරණයක් විදියට ගෙදරදි ඔයාල නෙට් එකේ ආටිකල් එකක් බල බල ඉඳල office ගියා කියමු. office එකේදි ඒකෙ ඉතුරු ටික බලන්න පුලුවන් කිසිම URL එකක්වත් මතක තියාගන්නෙ නැතුව. ගෙදරදි සේව් කරපු පාස්වර්ඩ්ස්, බ්‍රව්ස් හිස්ට්‍රි සේරම කිසි අවුලක් නැතුව බලාගන්න පුළුවන්.

මේ add-on එක Mozilla Labs විසින්ම හදපු එකක් නිසා බයවෙන්න දෙයකුත් නෑ. Firefox 3.5 - 4.0.* දක්වා support කරනවා.

මෙතනින් ගන්න

අළුත් එකවුන්ට් එකක් හදාගන්න

Sync කරන්න නම් ‍මෙන්න මේ දෙන key එක ඕන කරනවා. මේක හොඳට ආරක්ශා කරල තියා ගන්න. පළවෙනි පාරට තවත් තැනකදි Sync කරනකොට මේ Key එක ඉල්ලනවා

මෙන්න මේ විදියට Add-on එක හැම කම්පියුටර් එකටම install කරගන්න. පළවෙනි පාරට එකවුන්ට් එකක් හැදුවට පස්සෙ ආයෙත් එකවුන්ට්ස් හදන්න ඕන නෑ. ඊමේල් එකයි පාස්වර්ඩ් එකයි Key එකයි දුන්නම ඇති.(Key එක පළවෙනි පාරට දුන්නම් ඇති. ආයෙත් ඉල්ලන්නෙ නෑ)

Sync කරන්න ඕන උනාම Tools -> Sync -> Sync Now කරන්න.

Conceptual Architecture of Firefox

1 Introduction

Firefox is a product that is released by the Mozilla Foundation. Firefox is written in C/C++
and contains over 2,400 kLOC. The conceptual architecture is similar to most modern web
browsers. The application is comprised of several independent components layered together to
form what is commonly called a layered architecture.
A layered architecture is used to simply the design and maintainability of the code. Like the OSI
model, the conceptual architecture provides interfaces for higher level components to interact
with lower level components. This allows each component to be built in isolation, as long as
each components adheres to a defined interface. The layered architecture promotes code reuse
by allowing other applications the ability to easily include individual components (Epiphany,
the official web browser of the GNOME project uses the Mozilla Engine but provides different
user interface). As the software application evolves components can be swapped out for new
implementations without affecting the components in layer above or below.


ff archi1

Figure 1: Reference architecture of common browsers including Firefox


Each conceptual component is introduced briefly below.


• The User Interface component provides the methods with which a user  interacts
with the Browser Engine. The User Interface provides standard features (preferences,
printing, downloading, toolbars) users expect when dealing with a desktop application.

• The Browser Engine component  provides a high-level interface to the Rendering
Engine. The Browser Engine provides methods to initiate the loading of a URL
and other high-level browsing actions (reload, back, forward). The Browser Engine also
provides the User interface with various messages relating to error messages and loading

• The Rendering Engine component  produces the visual representation of
a given URL. The Rendering Engine interprets the HTML, XML, and JavaScript that
comprises a given URL and generates the layout that is displayed in the User Interface. A
key component of the Rendering Engine is the HTML parser, this HTML parser is quite
complex because it allows the Rendering Engine to display poorly formed HTML pages.

• The Networking component provides functionality to handle retrieve URLs
using the common Internet protocols of HTTP and FTP. The Networking components
handles all aspects of Internet communication and security, character set translations and
MIME type resolution. The Network component may implement a cache of retrieved
documents to minimize network traffic.

• The JavaScript Interpreter component executes the JavaScript code that
is embedded in a website. Results of the execution a passed to the Rendering Engine
for display. The Rendering Engine may disable various actions based on user defined

• The XML Parser component  is used to parse XML documents.

• The Display Backend component  is tightly coupled with the host operating
system. It provides primitive drawing and windowing methods that are host operating
system dependent.

• The Data Persistence component  manages user data such as bookmarks and


2 Evolution


Firefox is an open-source project that is managed by the Mozilla Foundation. Each component
is divided into sub-modules. Each of these modules is owned by a specific individual that is in
charge of managing the development of that that module. Mozilla lists all module owners on
their website. Individuals who wish to help with the development join a team responsible
for a given module. The module owner is required to review and approve all changes for a given module.
The Mozilla Foundation oversees the overall architecture of Firefox and provides best-practices.
The foundation manages all the module owners and as the application evolves directs the module owners about what changes and features need to be added. To maintain a high standard, several levels of code reviews are required before code is added into the main
Firefox distribution. Module owners review code that contributed to individual modules and
may require additional code reviews from other peers depending if the change affects other
modules. ”Super-reviews” are used to ensure all patches fit properly with the Firebox code base as a whole; these reviews are done by developers that are in charge of the Firefox architecture.



3 Components

3.1 User Interface


The XPToolkit is a collection of loosely related facilities, from which application writers can pick and choose, which provide a platform independent API to some commonly exploited platformspecific machinery, e.g., bringing up a dialog. Not all platform independent facilities fall under the XPToolkit. JavaScript, for example, is a distinct service. Not all the platform specific implementation details can be forced into the XPToolkit. Applications will still contain platform specific code; though they can minimize the amount by exploiting the XPToolkit.
Starting with the top-down approach, if XPToolkit is the go-to component in terms of UI and
Gecko is the layout engine, how do they interact? XPToolkit uses the XML User Interface
Language (XUL) to define UI components, namely widgets. Since Gecko already provides the
facility to parse XUL documents (Gecko actually delegates the XML parsing to the XML Parser
component) into an object model, there is no need for duplication; XPToolkit uses Gecko to
parse XUL into the Application Object Model (AOM).
Once XPToolkit has the AOM, it generates two layers : frames
and widgets, and services. The former is responsible for the look-and-feel of the user interface while the latter is in charge of implementing the services, such as printing. These two layers are completely independent; the only way the communicate is through the AOM, who is responsible for the message-passing back and forth.
3.2 Browser Engine The Firefox 2 Browser Engine or NGLayout module is responsible for coordinating the various other modules download, parse, and apply CSS styles. Once the DOM has been loaded the content is passed off to the rendering engine to be drawn to the display device. The NGLayout component uses the following sub-components:

• Layout: the layout sub-component is responsible for managing the layout of the DOM
for rendering. The Layout sub-system coordinates the Style and DOM components and
facilitates the layout of the rendered DOM into a format supported by the graphics subsystem.
• Rendering: the rendering sub-component is responsible for translating the loaded DOM
and Style information into graphics primitives and then drawing the processed content to
the display device.
• Style: the style sub-component is responsible for applying styles to the parsed html. The
Style subsystem modifies the DOM to apply CSS1, CSS2, HTML 3.0 and limited HTML
4.0 styles to the parsed HTML document.
• DOM: the DOM (Document Object Model) is a interface or facade which provides an
abstraction layer above the underlying components representing web site content. The
DOM also provides bindings for JavaScript, Python, C++ and XPCOM. The Firefox
DOM fully supports the W3C Level 1 DOM standard and already implements many of
the more important W3C Level 2 DOM standards.


ff archi

XPToolkit Architecture

• HTML Parser: The html parser sub-component is responsible for parsing incoming content
and loading the DOM. The Parser is fully backwards compatible with Navigator 4.x and
Internet Explorer and provides limited DTD support.
The NGLayout component communicates with the configuration system to control how pages
are loaded and to configure other the functionality that NGLayout provides.


3.3 Rendering Engine


The Rendering engine is a sub-system of NGLayout and uses a set of platform independent and platform dependant data structures to render web content to the screen. Layout is controlled by Gecko’s modern CSS2 implementation and is rendered using the Mark II rendering method whereby the rendering engine uses placeholders for anticipated content that has not yet arrived. The placeholders are then replaced as content becomes available thereby allowing for fast rendering of pages.
The rendering engine is responsible for drawing the user interface and any web content to
the screen. The rendering engine renders content based on a set of platform independent

data structures including: geometrical primitives, colour definitions, font specifications, image
abstraction, rendering context, device context, font metrics, image, regions, and alpha blender.
The rendering engine uses a copy of the current DOM to render web pages using the graphics
primitives listed above,

3.4 Data Persistence

This layer can be split into two components: Browser persistence, and user data; they are
completely independent.
Firefox uses mozStorage to persist browser information, which includes settings for extensions and Firefox components. mozStorage is a database API built on top of sqlite [13]. Since it is only available to trusted callers, web pages do not have access to it. There is rudimentary support for transactions and limitations when it comes to concurrency. The bottom line is
that mozStorage is not a heavy-duty database system and should not be treated like one. It
essentially interacts with Gecko (Firefox native components) and the extensions.
Firefox persists user data through cookies, DOM Storage, and Flash Local Storage. Cookies
are widely used on the internet, but are somewhat limited. DOM Storage is an alternative
introduced by Web Applications 1.0 that allow for persisting more data in a secure fashion.
Finally, Flash Local Storage requires an external plug-in. In any event, the user persistence
component interacts with both Gecko and XPToolkit.

3.5 Networking

The networking module is really two components, the network library (Necko, previously known
as Netlib) and the network security (NSS and PSM).
Necko is a platform-independent API that handles multiple layers of the networking model
(Network, Session and Presentation layers). Although part of the Mozilla codebase, it is possible to create your own network client using this API. Necko depends on XPCOM and NSPR.
Necko provides a variety of services. The nsIIOService is the main Necko service that manages protocol handlers and creates URI objects from URI strings. The nsIRUI service provides URI implementations for different protocols, including accessor functions. The nsIChannel represents a single-use logical connection to a resource (protocol implementation dependent).
The nsIProtocolHandler service manages a protocol, creates the nsIRUI object, and creates the
nsIChannel. The nsIStreamListener is passed to the nsIChannel and has functions related to
managing download requests. The nsITransport service represents the physical connection, and contains both synchronous and asynchronous I/O methods to be used by different protocols.
NSS (Network Security Services) is a set of libraries used to supply Firefox with security-enabled communications. NSS is built on NSPR (Netscape Portable Runtime) and supports a
variety of security standards and certificates including:
• SSL v2 and v3
• TLS v1 (RFC 2246)
• PKCS #s 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12
• X.509 v3
• S/MIME (RFC 2311 and RFC 2633)
PSM (Personal Security Manager) is a set of libraries that perform many standard PKI functions
such as setting up SSL connections and verifying signatures. PSM is built on NSS.

3.6 JavaScript Interpreter 

SpiderMonkey is Mozilla’s JavaScript interpreter, implemented in C. Formerly known as JSRef
(JavaScript Reference), SpiderMonkey builds a DLL that contains the JavaScript runtime
elements, and compiles an interpreter program that is linked to the library to run scripts.
SpiderMonkey has no dependencies on any other part of the system.

3.7 XML Parser

Firefox stands on four main pillars: XUL, an XML dialect used to construct user interfaces;
JavaScript, a scripting language; RDF, an XML dialect used to store data; and, XPCOM, an
object discovery and management system. A parser decoupled from a particular dialect is
highly desirable in order to parse structured data and to maintain the parser code effectively.
Additionally, Firefox supports many other XML technologies recommended by the W3C, including
XHTML, SVG, MathML and XLink.
Firefox uses an existing XML Parser, Expat, to read, write and transform XML documents to
and from a variety of XML dialects mentioned above. As a result, the parser is one of the most
reusable components in the architecture. The parser typically returns a DOM tree which the
client code can traverse to extract the appropriate information. The Rendering Engine uses the XML Parser component to parse XML, XUL, SVG and other dialects of XML. The resulting
tree data structures are then used for further processing in the rest of Firefox.

3.8 Display Backend

The Display Backend is tightly coupled with the host operating system. The Display Backend
provides a coherent, cross-platform, interface used by the User Interface, for all drawing
and windowing functionality provided by the various operating systems that are supported by
Firefox. The interface is made up of many different widgets that are used by the User Interface.
The Display Backend is divided into two sub-components: an OS specific graphics adapter and
the OS graphics libraries. The adapter translates internal calls from the User Interface into calls that are understood by the host OS’s graphics libraries. For each host operating system there is a different implementation that uses the native graphics libraries provided by the OS. For UNIX type operating systems Firefox implements a graphics adapter that uses the GTK+/X11 libraries. For the Mac OSX version Firefox implements a graphics adapter that uses the native Cocoa framework. For the Windows version Firefox implements a graphics adapter using the WINAPI and MFC system calls.


3.9 Extensibility

Unlike Mozilla, Firefox comes with a powerful extension capability, which allows extensions
to alter the behaviour of the browser at various stages of the architecture. New themes for
skinning can be added. New XML tags to the XUL language and even new XPCOM objects
can be added using extensions [3]. As Figure 4 shows, the extensions are included in the same
layer as the User Interface layer but they interact with the Persistence engine (where they are
stored) and the User Interface engine (which allows the user to access some extensions). Some
extensions run without a UI, so not all extensions interact with the User Interface layer.



Conceptual Architecture of Firefox by
Andre Campos, Bryan Lane, Neal Clark,
Sunpreet Jassal, Stephen Hitchner